lace- After obtaining the baccalaureate in 2021, the Moroccan young man, Yassin Imeh, decided to enroll in the Physics Division of the Faculty of Science in Rabat, but he found difficulties in adapting to the academic system, so he decided to give up education and search for a job opportunity that would provide him with a financial income that would help him meet his needs.
Today, Yassin works in a food delivery service, which is the job available to a young man who only holds a baccalaureate degree. He justifies his direction to work due to the difficulty of university studies, and the lack of job opportunities available to graduates of the physics department that he had previously chosen.
Graduates without a job
As for Amal Al-Mahjoubi (a pseudonym), she graduated a year ago from the Faculty of Legal, Economic and Social Sciences in Al-Muhammadiyah, after obtaining a BA in Law. Since her graduation, she has been seeking a job opportunity commensurate with her university qualification, but she has not succeeded despite passing a number of tests.
She tells Al-Jazeera Net that she chose to study law after hearing that job opportunities are more available to graduates of this division, but after obtaining the certificate, she collided with reality.
Amal explains that she took the judicial delegate test, but success was not her ally, given the thousands of applicants, while only hundreds were accepted. She also passed the education test and was unlucky.
The young woman indicates that the job offers available to her are limited and for a low wage. She received an 8-hour work offer per day from a public clerk for 1,300 dirhams (about 128 US dollars), so she refused the offer because it did not suit her.
Amal chose to work cleaning in a cafe in the morning, and to provide school support lessons for primary school students.
She says that this work enables her to support herself and allows her more time to prepare for the master’s entrance exam, as well as to search for suitable job opportunities with her degree.
Graduates without degrees
Figures released by Morocco’s Ministry of Higher Education revealed that half of students leave university without obtaining a diploma. Unemployment of graduates of higher education has also increased, as about 19% of graduates of the faculties of Arts, Law, Economics and Science suffer from unemployment, compared to 8.5% for graduates of faculties with scientific specializations, such as medicine, engineering and higher schools.
In the academic season 2020-2021, about 143,000 students graduated from the 12 Moroccan public universities.
The Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research attributes this situation to the graduates’ lack of language and digital skills, which constitutes an obstacle to their integration into the labor market.
For his part, Professor of Sociology at Moulay Ismail University in Meknes, Rachid Jarmouni, explains that the phenomenon of university dropout is linked to faculties that attract large numbers of students, such as the faculties of law, literature, economics and science, while the phenomenon is limited in other faculties.
Al-Jarmoni believes – in an interview with Al-Jazeera Net – that the phenomenon reflects the failure of the educational system as a whole and not only in the university, and in his view it is nothing but an accumulation of years of education in which the student does not acquire the linguistic, analytical and thinking faculties, which makes him join colleges with open polarization because it is the only option in front of him. Pointing out that this affects the quality of education, which is still mostly based on the traditional method based on abstracts and references.
The faculties of law, economics, arts, humanities and sciences include about 850,000 undergraduate students out of about one million students in universities. 510,000 of these students study law and economics in the faculties of legal, economic and social sciences, according to the statistics of the Ministry of Higher Education for the 2021-2022 season.--
For his part, the dean of the Faculty of Legal, Economic and Social Sciences in Martil, Mohamed El Amrani Boukhbza, believes that the issue of guidance affects the student’s path at the university.-
Boukhbza explains – in an interview with Al-Jazeera Net – that many students choose a specific university major without conviction or desire, so he stresses the need for greater effort and more cooperation between education academies and universities at the level of each entity to enable students to choose the major that suits their qualifications.
Boukhbza adds that the issue of the language of instruction (some people are taught in French at the university) constitutes an obstacle for students and pushes some of them to leave the university without completing the scientific course.
Many Moroccan families believe that studying in colleges that open numbers of students enter is evidence of failure and the ambiguity of their children’s future, because their graduates find nothing ahead of them except unemployment, so they make a great financial and moral effort to push their children to obtain high rates in the baccalaureate in order to enroll in schools and higher institutes. Limited numbers such as engineering, medicine and pharmacy.
However, Boukhbza believes that it is necessary to restore confidence in the university so that it becomes a goal and a goal for students, and a space for building the future and for good training, stressing the importance of changing the mentalities that link success to studying in medical and engineering schools, and failure in others.
He explained that the university is not only a gateway to the labor market, but also has other functions, including the reproduction of community values, the preservation of identity, training and scientific research.
Brigadier General Boukhbza believes that enhancing confidence in the university will only take place by reviewing the way students are formed and its relationship to the environment in which they are located. This is what the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research is working on within the framework of the national plan to accelerate the transformation of the system of higher education, scientific research and innovation.
scheme for repair
This plan is based – according to the report presented by the Minister of Higher Education before the Supreme Council for Education and Training a few days ago – on a number of directions to reform the bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral systems, and to encourage scientific research and innovation.
Under this plan, the university will work on creating new paths that respond to the needs of the national and productive sectors in terms of cadres and competencies.
The approved approaches to reform the bachelor’s system are based on the compulsory obtaining of a certificate in one of the foreign languages (French and English), and another in digital skills, in addition to establishing flexible bridges between disciplines, tracks, and institutions by launching new paths of excellence, starting from the third year of university in colleges that accept open numbers.
Brigadier General Boukhbza explains that the report of the New Development Model Committee – of which he was a member – made a number of recommendations to modernize and reform governmental and private higher education institutions and to raise their performance, including ensuring the independence of higher education institutions, placing the student at the center of reforms and measures to improve the performance of higher education, and encouraging Scientific research through an independent mechanism for financing and evaluation.
For his part, university professor Rashid Al-Jarmouni stresses the necessity of looking at the educational system in its comprehensiveness and linking it to the country’s development vision in order to be of efficiency and quality.
He pointed out that the reform plans developed by the Ministries of National Education and Higher Education include positive measures that will enable the university to be linked to the labor market, calling for the provision of material and logistical conditions and social support to achieve positive results and reduce university dropouts and unemployment of graduates.