New Andalusian Library .. «Political Hostages in Andalusia» chronicles 180 years of conflict between Muslims and Spaniards

New Andalusian Library .. «Political Hostages in Andalusia» chronicles 180 years of conflict between Muslims and Spaniards
New Andalusian Library .. «Political Hostages in Andalusia» chronicles 180 years of conflict between Muslims and Spaniards
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It was the destiny of the Muslims in Andalusia to establish their prosperous civilization for eight centuries in light of the merciless wars with the Christian Spanish kingdoms that announced the recovery movement on the Muslims from the first day of the Muslims entering the Andalusian Peninsula, and it was natural for the dead to fall and the concentration camps to be crowded with prisoners and hostages between the two parties.

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But here, a distinction must be made between ordinary prisoners of war and political hostages, who were facing all kinds of humiliation, and they might end up being killed or enslaved, and the happy ones are those who are lucky enough to free themselves after paying the ransom. armistice or during the surrender of cities, whereby they are liberated as soon as those terms are fulfilled.

This idea was the focus of the new book titled “Political Hostages in Andalusia in the Almoravid and Almohad eras (484-668 AH / 1091-1269 AD) as a historical and political phenomenon,” by researcher Menna Allah Sobhi, PhD researcher in history and Islamic civilization at the Faculty of Arts, University of Alexandria.

The hostage means the arrest of a person of stature, taking him by force, and then restricting his freedom. In order to obtain some political demands or as a guarantee of submission and loyalty to the other party, which is also a kind of extension of political hegemony, the Almoravid and Almohad states fought many battles with the Spanish Christian kingdoms, as well as with the Islamic forces revolting in Andalusia, which resulted in taking hostages for the dominant party to implement Certain political demands or for submission and allegiance.

The researcher, Menna Allah Subhi, adds that the Almoravid state is one of the greatest states that extended its control over Morocco and Andalusia, as its idea was based on the jihad of the Spanish kingdoms, and the Almoravids succeeded in establishing a strong and sprawling state in the Far Maghreb, and Andalusia at that time was suffering from disintegration and the loss of cities one by one. The other is in the hands of the Spaniards, so after the kings of the sects in Andalusia heard of the young Almoravid state, they found nothing before them but to seek the help of the Almoravids to rid them of the hands of the Spaniards. “.

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After this victory, the kings of the sects in Andalusia returned to their first path and dealt with “Alfonso VI” the king of Castile and paid tribute to him. Yusuf bin Tashfin decided to eliminate the kings of the sects after realizing that these kings would be the cause of the loss of Andalusia, so he decided to march with his armies to Andalusia and eliminate these kings by placing Some of them are under house arrest in Morocco, then seized Andalusia and preserved the patch of Islam in it, just as the successors of Yusuf bin Tashfin succeeded in their position of hostility to the Spanish Christian kingdoms, and they entered into fierce wars that resulted in taking hostages to bargain over the implementation of agreements or political matters.

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Then the Almoravid state was replaced by another state, the Almohad state, which succeeded in eliminating the Almoravid state in Morocco and Andalusia, and the Almohad caliphs entered into the same conflicts with the Spaniards, and many decisive battles broke out, especially its famous Ark site in the year (591 AH / 1195 AD) under the leadership of the Caliph “Yaqub”. Al-Mansur Almohad, and like any war that resulted in taking hostages as a guarantee of submission and loyalty to the Almohad state, then after that came the defeat of Al-Aqab in 609 AH / 1212 AD, which is considered the beginning of the end of the Almohad state, so the Almohad state did not exist after that, and the conflict was not limited between the Almohads with the Christians only, but rather It also included the conflict with the Islamic kingdoms in Andalusia.

As a result of this conflict, hostages were taken, and then after that the independence movements arose in Andalusia, so each governor was independent with what he had from the city, and the Almohad princes failed and concluded agreements with the Christian kingdoms that ended with the provision of hostages as a guarantee for the implementation of the agreements concluded, which made the cities of Andalusia fall one after the other in the hands of The Christians ended, and the Almohad state ended, leaving Andalusia to suffer from a vacuum of heroes protecting and defending it, and the major Andalusian cities fell, and Granada remained the last Muslim stronghold in Andalusia, providing for the Islamic presence in the Iberian Peninsula for more than two and a half centuries until it fell in 897 AH / 1492 AD.

The researcher says: “My goal in writing on this topic was to know what the hostages are and the purpose of taking them, and to study the political situation in Andalusia and its impact on the policy of taking hostages, as well as the treatment of these hostages, and whether the policy of taking them achieved the desired political goals.”

The book is divided into an introduction and two chapters. The first chapter is dedicated to the study of political hostages in the era of the Almoravid state, especially the periods of rule of Yusuf ibn Tashfin and Ali ibn Yusuf ibn Tashfin until the fall of the Almoravid state in Andalusia and the establishment of the Almohad state. As for the second chapter, it is devoted to studying political hostages in the era of the Almohad state. Especially the periods of the rule of the caliph Abd al-Mu’min ibn Ali, the caliph Yusuf ibn Abd al-Mu’min, and the caliph Yaqoub al-Mansur until the end of the Almohad state. The conclusion included the most important findings of the study.

2023-638100277454015452-401.jpgPolitical hostages book in Andalusia
2023-638100277616139557-613.jpgResearcher Menna Allah Sobhi

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