The publication of the book “The Ottomans and the Late Crusades in Eastern Europe” by Dr. Sarah Al-Azab

The publication of the book “The Ottomans and the Late Crusades in Eastern Europe” by Dr. Sarah Al-Azab
The publication of the book “The Ottomans and the Late Crusades in Eastern Europe” by Dr. Sarah Al-Azab
-

Recently, the book “The Ottomans and the Late Crusades in Eastern Europe” was published by Dr. Sarah Al-Azab Hussein Issa, published by Abed Publishing House.

The book deals with the late Crusades in eastern Europe against the Ottomans, from the Battle of Kosovo 1389 to the Battle of Varna 1444, which is the beginning of the end of the Byzantine state, as a prelude to the conquest of Constantinople by Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror.

This book deals with the late Crusades in Eastern Europe against the Ottomans, starting from the first battle of Kosovo in 1389 CE and ending with the Battle of Varna in 1444 CE, which we dealt with in this study extensively, as the Crusade on Varna is the beginning of the end of the Byzantine state, and a prelude to the conquest of Constantinople, its capital, by Sultan Mehmed II. (The Conqueror), and that there were only nine years left of the life of that ancient state before its fall and the closing of its page, and the Islamic countries exchanged congratulations on the occasion of the great victory achieved by Sultan Murad II from a major victory in Varna against a crusader alliance that reminds us of the history of the first crusades. The nature of this book necessitated that it consist of three chapters, preceded by an introduction and a preface, followed by a special part of appendices, and then the conclusion.

As follows: The introduction included an introduction to the old port of Varna, then the conditions that helped the Ottomans to penetrate into the heart of the Balkans.

As for the first chapter, which was titled “The War Conflicts between the Ottomans and the Balkan Countries before the Battle of Varna,” it deals with the late Crusader war battles that preceded the Battle of Varna by more than half a century, such as the Battle of Kosovo 1389 AD, Nicopolis 1396 AD, the battles of Hermannstedt and the Iron Gate 1442 AD, as well as the Battle of Azladi 1443 AD.

-

As for the second chapter, which was titled “The Reasons for the Clash between the Ottomans and the Crusaders to seize Varna,” it dealt with the religious reasons for the battle, which explained the intense hatred of the Eastern Orthodox for the Western Catholics, and that the idea of ​​the union of the two sects under the banner of the Church of Rome, an idea adopted by the Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaiologos (1425-1448 AD), in agreement with the Pope of Rome, Eugene IV, was not due to the desire of the union itself as much as it was in the interest of the papacy – to a large extent – to take over the leadership of the entire Christian world, and not to the sincere religious desire to liberate the country from the grip of the Ottomans. Then he touched on the political reasons that led to the occurrence of the battle, while clarifying the role of each of the joint Crusader forces in the war, and the extent of their hostility to the Ottoman Empire, and thus their entry into this battle.

--

The chapter concluded with the economic reasons for the Battle of Varna, represented in the economic relations between the two independent Italian cities (Genoa – Venice) on the one hand, and the Ottoman Empire on the other.

As for the third chapter, which was titled “The Events and Results of the Battle of Varna”, it dealt with the reasons that made Sultan Murad II think of concluding a truce with the Crusaders in the Ottoman city of Edirne, especially after the Ottoman conditions changed on the European and Anatolian fronts (Asia Minor), and then its ratification in The Hungarian city of Szegaden in the year 1444 AD by the Hungarian King Vladislav III, and considering this agreement by the two parties (Ottoman – Hungarian) as an opportunity to catch a breath, especially after a long series of conflicts and wars, and then vetoed it by King Vladislav III and Cardinal Cesarini, considering that any oath What is being done to an infidel is considered invalid, and what is meant here is (the Ottomans), then discusses the crusaders’ breach of the armistice with the Ottomans, dives into the details of the events of the Battle of Varna and the belligerent forces, the divisions of the Ottoman and European forces, and the intervention of the geographical factor in the course of the battle, then the chapter is concluded by talking about the results of the battle whether Was it direct and represented in its impact on the forces participating in it on both sides (the Ottoman – European), then presenting the indirect results of the battle on the internal and external levels External to the countries of Eastern Europe, changing the geographical position of the states involved in the battle, and the fall of Constantinople nine years after Varna, ending the largest empire at the time at the hands of the Ottomans in 1453 AD.

On January 25, the activities of the 54th session of the Cairo International Book Fair will start, which began as a cultural week in December 1960 under the title “Arab Book Week” in the Fayoum educational district, with the participation of 10 Egyptian publishers and publishers from four Arab countries (Lebanon, Iraq, Syria, and Jordan), Dar Al-Maarif, the Modern Publications Foundation, and Dar Nahdat Misr.

With the success of the cultural week, and in 1969, the Minister of Culture at the time, Tharwat Okasha, coinciding with the millennium in Cairo, decided that the celebration should be cultural throughout the Republic. In October of the same year, a book fair was held with the participation of 48 publishers and scientific bodies and 13 Arab publishers, in addition to a daily program of seminars. Literary, and an exhibition of the evolution of printing.

-

--

PREV Adobe’s leading software in graphic design, e-books, and more
NEXT The publication of the book “The Future of the Palestinian Cause in Shadow of Settlements” by Wael Abdel Hakim Rabie