Dr. Abeer bint Ali Muhammad Rashid, Assistant Professor, Psychological Consultant and Clinical Supervisor, Vice Dean of the Preparatory Year and Supporting Studies at Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal University, explainedBipolar disorders are described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth, issued by the American Psychiatric Association, as a group of brain disorders that cause extreme fluctuations in a person’s mood between (mania and hypomania) and (depression) that affect their energy and his capabilities. Bipolar disorder is a category that includes three different conditions, bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder, which are as follows:
Bipolar I disorder type I:
The patient has had at least one manic episode, which may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes. In some cases, mania may lead to a separation from reality, which is known as psychosis, but it is not a condition for diagnosis, as it may not show any psychotic symptoms, however, it is classified as the first type due to a manic episode.
Bipolar II disorder:
The patient has at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but the patient never has a manic episode or any psychotic symptoms.
This mood is characterized by several episodes of hypomanic symptoms over at least two years, or one year in young adults and teens, or episodes of depressive symptoms, but it is less severe than major depression.
Studies have proven that there are several causes of bipolar disorder, including: a chemical imbalance in the brain of levels of neurotransmitters, which are chemicals responsible for controlling brain functions (such as: noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine). The genetic factor also has a very important role in the emergence of bipolar disorder, as approximately 80% of individuals with bipolar disorder have relatives with depression, or bipolar disorder, and there is no doubt that stressful life conditions and traumatic events play a role in the emergence of symptoms. turbulence.
Because this disorder fluctuates between depression and mania, symptoms vary according to mood. Symptoms of depression are a persistent feeling of sadness, hopelessness, unexplained irritability, lack of energy, difficulty concentrating, poor memory, feeling empty, loss of interest in daily activities, lack of enjoyment in life, constant guilt, self-flagellation, lack of self-confidence, pessimism and negative thoughts. Difficulty sleeping, loss of appetite, thoughts of death, and suicidal thoughts.
As for the stage of manic episodes, the symptoms are radically different from the stage of depression, as the symptoms become as follows: Excessive feeling of happiness with a feeling of very high energy, a sense of self-distinction
and relevance. Talking too quickly and incoherently Feeling and seeking new and unique ideas Hallucinations and disturbed thinking In addition to a reduced need for sleep and rest.
Bipolar disorder is diagnosed by reference to the medical history (time, extent, severity, frequency, etc.), as well as an understanding of the patient’s life circumstances and a review of family history, which plays a major role in diagnosing the patient’s condition.
The treatment is divided into two parts, pharmacological treatment (which is mood stabilizers) and cognitive-behavioral therapy, and the goal of combining these two methods of treatment is to reduce the severity and number of mood swings between depression and mania and to enhance life skills that help the patient live with the disorder and reach an appropriate quality of life for them.
Some believe that it is impossible for a patient with bipolar disorder to live peacefully in a stable life. The fact is that in many cases, adherence to drug treatment, and cognitive behavioral therapy strategies have a major role in supporting the patient to enjoy good periods of psychological stability by alleviating symptoms (Depression and Mania) Undoubtedly, awareness of the surrounding environment and the proper way of dealing with the patient and providing psychological support contribute to alleviating the impact of the disorder on the patient and promoting calm and peace for him. Nothing is impossible especially if the patient receives the right service at the right time from the right specialist.