Can a person enter a black hole to study and survive the event horizon?


To solve the mysteries of black holes, humans will simply have to take risks. However, there is a rather complicated pickup: a human can only do it if he is Black hole Huge and isolated, so a person entering a black hole would not expect to communicate the results to anyone in the entire universe.

we Monday Physicists Who study black holes, but from a very safe distance. black holes It is among the most abundant astrophysical objects in our universe. These interesting things seem to be a staple of me Universe evolution, The the great explosion until today. They might have An effect on the formation of human life in our galaxy.

Two types of black holes

The universe is full A huge zoo of different types of black holes.

They can vary in size and be electrically charged, in the same way that electrons or protons are found in atoms. Some black holes are already spinning. There are two types of black holes relevant to our discussion. The first does not rotate, is electrically neutral – meaning neither positive nor negative – and has the mass of our Sun. The second type is a supermassive black hole, its mass is millions or even billions of times the mass of our sun.

Besides the difference in mass between the two types of black holes, what also distinguishes them is the distance from their centers to the “event horizon” – a measure called the radial distance. The event horizon of a black hole is a point of no return. Anything beyond this point will be swallowed up by the black hole and will forever disappear from our known universe.

Black hole event horizon diagram

The distance from the center of mass of a black hole to the place where the force of gravity is too strong to overcome is called the event horizon. Credit: Liu and Shanshan, CC BY-ND

On the event horizon, a black hole’s gravitational pull is so strong that no mechanical force can overcome or abort it. Even the lightThe fastest thing in our world, it cannot escape – hence the term “black hole”.

The radial size of the event horizon depends on the mass of the black hole in question and is essential for a person’s occurrence when falling into a single black hole. For a black hole of the mass of our Sun (solar mass), the radius of the event horizon would be just under two miles.

The supermassive black hole is in the center Milky Way On the other hand, the galaxy has a mass of about 4 million solar masses, and has an event horizon with a radius of 7.3 million miles, or 17 solar rays.

So anyone falling into a star-sized black hole would get much closer to the center of the black hole before past the event horizon, rather than falling into a supermassive black hole.

This means, given the black hole’s proximity to the black hole’s center, a person’s black hole’s gravity will vary 1,000 billion times between head and toes, depending on which one is driving free fall. In other words, if a person fell with his feet first, when approaching the event horizon of a stellar-mass black hole, the force of gravity on his foot would be significantly greater than the black hole’s pull on his head.

A person will succumb to spaghetti and likely not survive the long, thin shape of the pasta.

A person is approaching a black hole’s event horizon

When a person approaches the event horizon of a black hole the size of the sun, the large difference in gravity between the individual’s head and toes causes the person to stretch out in the form of very long spaghetti, hence the term “spaghetti”. Credit: Liu and Shanshan Rodriguez, CC BY-ND

Now, a person falling into a supermassive black hole would reach an event horizon away from the central source of the gravitational pull, which means that the difference in gravity between head and toe is almost zero. Consequently, the person would cross the event horizon unaffected, not stretch into a long and thin shape, survive, and float painlessly beyond the horizon of the black hole.

A person falls into a supermassive black hole

A person who falls into a supermassive black hole is likely to survive. Credit: Liu and Shanshan Rodriguez, CC BY-ND

Other considerations

Most of the black holes we see in the universe are surrounded by extremely hot disks of matter, mostly composed of gas, dust, or other things like stars and planets that approached the horizon and fell into the black hole. These pills are called buildup discs and are very hot and turbulent. It is certainly not hospitable and would make a trip to a black hole extremely dangerous.

To get to it safely, you would need to find a supermassive black hole that is completely isolated and not feeding on surrounding matter, gas, or even stars.

Now, if someone detects an isolated supermassive black hole suitable for scientific study and decides to venture with it, anything that is observed or measured inside the black hole will be limited to the event horizon of the black hole.

Bearing in mind that nothing can escape the gravitational pull behind the event horizon, a fallen person would not be able to send information about their findings beyond that horizon. Their journey and discoveries will be lost to the rest of the universe forever. But they will enjoy the adventure as long as they survive … maybe …

Written by Leo Rodriguez, Assistant Professor of Physics, Grenell College and Shanshan Rodriguez, Assistant Professor of Physics, Grenell College.

Originally published on Dialogue.Dialogue


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