The Astronomical Society in Jeddah revealed, in a report, that Earth and Mars together were formed in the great primitive nebula in which the sun was also formed, and both Earth and Mars are about 4.5 billion years old, and as is the case on Earth, a system has been established to adjust the time on Mars, compared to the calendar The most used on the planet is the Gregorian calendar, which puts us in the year 2021.
The Mars calendar is much more recent, as the first year on Mars was at the Northern Spring Equinox on April 11, 1955, when a large dust storm blew over Mars in the second half of that Mars year (sometimes called the Great Dust Storm of 1956).
There are no names for the Mars years, but the first system to determine the Mars years was published in a scientific research paper published in 2000, explaining the temperature changes on the red planet.
The system is based on the orbit to calculate the Martian years and to aid in data comparisons, and in the years that followed, the system for Mars years began to be used, especially for those scientists who study the Martian climate.
The choice of April 11, 1955 was considered “without justification,” but the great dust storm of 1956 – which occurred in the first year of Mars – is a fitting sign.
Later, the system was extended by specifying the Mars year (0) beginning on May 24, 1953, thus allowing negative year numbers, similar to using before or after birth in the Gregorian calendar (or later, the plebeian or pre-plebeian era).
One year on Mars equals 687 Earth days, which means that Mars takes twice the time it takes the Earth to orbit around the sun, and this means that the lifespan of a person will be much less on Mars, and this can be easily calculated by dividing the person’s age by 1.88 and the result will be age On the planet.
The day on Mars, as it is on Earth, is determined by the time it takes for the planet to rotate on its axis. This is called the solar day of Mars and it is slightly longer than the Earth day, at 24 hours 39 minutes.
The planet Mars has four seasons: winter, spring, summer and autumn, which are determined based on the planet’s position in its orbit around the sun, and the new Martian year begins with the arctic equinox (Northern Spring, Southern Autumn).
As Mars moves on its annual path around the sun, the planet’s axial tilt causes the northern half of Mars to receive more sunlight during the northern summer, and the southern hemisphere receives more sunlight in the northern winter – just as it is on Earth, and unlike the seasons on Earth. , The seasons on Mars are not of equal length.
And because the orbit of Mars around the sun is more elliptical than the Earth’s, for example, spring lasts in the northern hemisphere (autumn in the southern hemisphere) for the longest period, 194 Martian days, and the northern hemisphere autumn (southern hemisphere spring) is the shortest season with a length of 142 Mars days.
Mars’s elliptical orbit can have important consequences. During the spring and southern summer, Mars moves near the sun faster, and the increase in sunlight causes the atmosphere to warm up, leading to a disturbance that raises very fine particles from the Martian soil, for this reason. , The second half of the Martian year is often marked by severe dust storms that can sometimes spread across the planet.
As on Earth, winters are cold and summers are warm on Mars, but the overall planet temperature is cooler, with an average annual temperature of minus 60 degrees Celsius, and the planet witnesses various weather phenomena over the seasons.
There is an atmospheric phenomenon that is observed every year in the spring or summer in the southern half of Mars, where a cloud of ice crystals appears, which can reach a length of 1,800 km over the summit of the volcano “Archaea Mons” and recur for 80 Martian days at least and then disappear during the rest of the year.
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