tayyar.org – Read how the vaccine works


The human body has many ways to defend itself against pathogens or disease-causing organisms. Skin, mucus, and cilia all act as physical barriers that prevent pathogens from entering the body in the first place.

In a WHO introductory report on the mechanism of action of the vaccine, the organization said that when the body is infected with a pathogen, the body activates its defenses, which are called the immune system, and the pathogens are attacked and destroyed or defeated.

The WHO report added that the pathogen is a germ, virus, parasite, or fungus that can cause disease inside the body. Each pathogen consists of several sub-parts, usually related specifically to that pathogen and the disease that causes it. The subpart of the pathogen that causes antibody formation is called the antigen.

The antibodies produced in response to the pathogen antigen are an important part of the immune system. These objects are soldiers in your body’s defense system. Every antibody or soldier in our system is trained to recognize a specific antigen.

And we have thousands of different antibodies in our bodies. When the human body is exposed to a pathogen for the first time, the immune system’s response to that to produce antibodies takes time. Meanwhile, the person is vulnerable to contracting the disease.

Once produced, the antibodies, along with the rest of the immune system, destroy the pathogen and stop the disease. In general, antibodies to a particular pathogen do not protect against another pathogen unless the two pathogens are exactly the same.

Once a person produces antibodies during their initial response to disease, they also form antibody-producing memory cells that remain alive even after the body has overcome the pathogen. If the body is exposed to the same pathogen again, the response of those bodies will be much faster and more effective than the first time because the memory cells are ready to release antibodies to the pathogen.

This means that if a person is exposed to a dangerous pathogen in the future, their immune system will be able to respond to it immediately, thus protecting the person from disease.

Vaccines contain attenuated or inactivated parts of a specific organism that trigger an immune response within the body. Modern vaccines contain the blueprint for producing antibodies. Regardless of whether the vaccine consists of the antibodies itself or from the blueprint that allows the body to produce them, this attenuated version will not cause illness to the person receiving the vaccine, but rather push the immune system to respond as closely as possible as if it were its first response to the actual pathogen. .

Community immunity

When a person receives a vaccination, they are very likely to have protection against the targeted disease. However, not everyone can be vaccinated. People with underlying health conditions that have weakened their immune systems (such as cancer or HIV) or who are severely sensitive to some components of vaccines may not be vaccinated with certain vaccines.

These people can still be protected if they live among others who have been vaccinated. When a large number of community members receive the vaccination, it will be difficult for the pathogen to spread because most of the individuals exposed to it are immune. Thus, the more people who receive the vaccination, the less likely it is that people who cannot be protected with vaccines will be exposed to the risk of harmful pathogens. This is called community immunity, or what is commonly known as herd immunity.

This is especially important for people who not only cannot be vaccinated, but who may also be more susceptible to the diseases we are vaccinated against. No single vaccine provides 100% protection, and community-based immunity does not fully protect people who cannot be safely vaccinated. But, through herd immunity, these people will enjoy a great deal of protection thanks to the vaccination of the people around them.

Vaccination not only protects you, but also members of the community who cannot be vaccinated. Do not hesitate to receive the vaccination if possible.

Some vaccines require multiple doses, which are given with an interval of weeks or months. Sometimes, this is necessary to allow the production of long-lived antibodies and the formation of memory cells. In this way, the body is trained to fight the specific organism causing the disease by creating a memory of the pathogen in order to quickly combat it in the event of future exposure.

Throughout history, humans have been able to develop vaccines against a number of life-threatening diseases, including meningitis, tetanus, measles and polio.

In the early twentieth century, polio was a global disease, causing hundreds of thousands of people to be paralyzed each year. By 1950, two effective vaccines had been developed against this disease. However, vaccination in some parts of the world, particularly in Africa, is still not common enough to stop the spread of polio.

The WHO report indicated that in the 1980s, a united global effort began to eradicate polio from the face of the earth. Over many years and decades, polio vaccination has spread to all continents, through routine immunization visits and mass vaccination campaigns. Millions of people, most of them children, were vaccinated, and in August 2020, the African continent was certified polio-free, thus joining all other regions of the world that have managed to eradicate polio, with the exception of Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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