Riyadh is in the second Saudi state … a remarkable scientific pioneer that surpassed its local surroundings

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Riyadh is in the second Saudi state … a remarkable scientific pioneer that surpassed its local surroundings

A study monitors the transformations in the new capital from 1824 until 1891


Sunday – 4 Jumada II 1442 AH – January 17, 2021 AD Issue No. [
15391]


In the middle of the old Riyadh, where the Great Mosque is located and the scientific lessons are held, and next to it is the market in which old books and manuscripts are offered for sale.

Riyadh: Badr Al-Khorayef

A Saudi researcher and historian has completed a study dealing with the scientific life in the city of Riyadh during the era of the second Saudi state, which is considered a new scientific addition in the history of Saudi Arabia. As the studies that dealt with the political history of Saudi Arabia in its three stages neglected the scientific aspect due to the scarcity of sources and the scarcity of information about that, but the researcher Dr. Rashid bin Muhammad Al-Asaker managed to dig up the history and concluded that the fall of the first Saudi state in 1818 and the destruction of its capital, Dir’iyah, and the establishment of the second Saudi state At the hands of Imam Turki bin Abdullah, and his adoption of the city of Riyadh as the capital of the state and the base of government, which led to the second country, and its capital, Riyadh, undergoing a major transformation, as the new capital became the political, administrative and economic center of gravity. Which earned it a great position in the region and doubled its importance.
The researcher pointed to a demographic phenomenon that had a role in the formation of the city, represented by the displacement of large numbers of residents of Dir’iyah, the capital of the first state, and some Najd cities and regions to Riyadh, the capital of the second state, and stability in it. Migration contributed to the formation of a new identity for the city and a remarkable change in its life system and its security, political and urban interactions, and this new situation had important implications for the scientific renaissance, as Riyadh became during the era of the second Saudi state an important scientific center in the region.
Al-Asaker revealed, through painstaking research supported by new documents, rare manuscripts, and personal interviews about aspects of civilization that the city of Riyadh enjoyed, especially in the field of scientific life, covering the period of time from 1824, which witnessed the establishment of the second Saudi state, until 1891, the date of its fall.
The researcher pointed out the clear differences in the educational process after the taking of Riyadh by Imam Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Saud, as a large part of the city’s people paid attention to the first phase of education, represented by the kuttab’s phase by allocating places and roles to be the headquarters of some schools in places. Particularly from Medina, considering that the phenomenon of endowments, al-Sabil and al-Habas formed an important role in the spread of education, and the emergence of schools’s activity in a large way, perhaps the most famous of which is the Ibn Mufrij School and the Ibn Musaybah School adjacent to the Dukhna Grand Mosque, as well as the great impact of the scholars ’circles in the mosques of scholars in the large mosques of Riyadh in The educational renaissance witnessed in the city of Riyadh, and he mentioned in this regard the Great Mosque of Dokhna, the Great Mosque of Riyadh, the Small Mosque of Dokhna, and the Mosque of Al-Merayib.
Al-Asaker revealed that Sharia sciences have taken over the intellectual product in the city, and scholars and some wealthy individuals have devoted much of their money to buying and stopping books. He also highlighted the interest of the Riyadh community in establishing private libraries in their home and being keen on acquiring and obtaining books regardless of their price, and some scientific libraries were distinguished. And the endowment, with its diversity of contents, treasury and scarcity of some of them, and the phenomenon of the population’s interest in bringing the first modern publications from some countries, such as India and Egypt, has emerged.
Then the researcher dealt with the political and security incidents that the city of Riyadh witnessed during that period on the scientific movement and its educational conditions, and their impact on the pillars and institutions of the state. Its climax was during the period of conflict between Imams Abdullah bin Faisal and Saud bin Faisal, which resulted in the interruption of education in some of its stages, the migration of some students of knowledge out of the city, and many books were lost as a result of theft and looting, and some endowments were affected by the lack of their revenues.
Al-Asaker reviewed the most prominent private libraries that spread in the city of Riyadh during that period, whose titles and sciences varied as a resource in this regard 43 libraries, including the Sheikh Abdul Rahman bin Hassan Al Sheikh library, which is the largest in the city of Riyadh, and even in the Najd region, and its contents and scientific material varied Which he collected in Diriyah, then in Egypt, and then in Riyadh.
The researcher referred to the female presence in the scientific movement in Riyadh during the period from 1824 to 1891, and in this regard he mentioned the endowment of Princess Sarah, the daughter of Imam Turki bin Abdullah Al Saud, the book Fath al-Majid to explain the book of monotheism by Sheikh Abdul Rahman bin Hassan Al Sheikh, to students Knowledge is from the people of Riyadh, where the formulation of the endowment came as follows: “I have endowed it for the sake of God Almighty upon the seekers of knowledge in the country of Riyadh, as a valid endowment that is not sold, donated, or mortgaged. God bless Muhammad »(dated 1286 AH).
He also dealt with one of the women’s endowments, Taaima bin Hamdan’s endowment on the book “Fath al-Majid,” and its text read: “Whoever sees it knows that Ta’imah bint Abdul Aziz bin Hamdan has stopped this book called“ Fath al-Majid ”to students of noble knowledge, seeking reward from the Lord of Lords and pursuant to the authentic hadith She made her look for the duration of her life, then after that by Saleh bin Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman, then after him his brother Abdul Rahman. Rashid bin Nimran witnessed this and wrote it as a witness to God, Muhammad bin Abdul Latif »(dated 1 / Shawwal / 1305 AH).

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