Together, we read the book “Global Cinema from the Perspective of Cinematic Genres” by William V Costanzo, translated by Ziad Ibrahim, and reviewed by Mustafa Mohamed Fouad, issued by the Hindawi Foundation.
Under the title “The Business Side of Cinema”, the book says:
For a long time, filmmaking was, and still is, a huge business. This was realized by Thomas Edison in 1893 when he patented the first “kinetoscope,” a box that allows the viewer inside to watch short films by staring through an opening in it and turning a handle. Edison’s idea was to make an income. Kabeer paid each viewer five cents for every movie he watched, but as the brothers Louie and Auguste Lumiere discovered shortly after, the most money-generating was showing the film on a big screen to a crowd, and the two French brothers opened the first movie theater in Paris in 1895.
Their invention, the “cinematograph”, was both a camera and a projector, which set world standards for films as a medium on display. In 1902, the Lumiere brothers sold their patents to the French company Patee, which developed the technology, set up production studios and opened a series of theaters. It spread to Russia, Australia and Japan.
For world cinemaThe American Edison was not afraid of the invention of his French competitors, and he produced hundreds of short films in his studio in New Jersey, which was called “Black Maria”, but he also created a new camera for outdoor photography. In those early days of cinema, filmmaking was a young and chaotic field where practitioners in the United States and Europe were borrowing ideas and stealing them from each other freely. In 1907, Edison helped organize this mess with the founding of the Motion Picture Patent Company, which was known as the “Edison Alliance,” which brought together major companies in the American film industry and controlled the three major episodes of the production chain of any film: “production”, “distribution” and “Presentation,” this tripartite system called “vertical integration” ensured a smooth and expense-saving flow of cinematic merchandise from the maker to the viewer. Edison was the one who invented cinema, but he made his mark on it as the first great movie businessman. Edison did not continue until the end of World War I, when the monopoly alliance was misused, when its members became rich by eliminating any foreign competition, he could be sued in the courts for illegal monopoly, which happened to the company in 1915. This door was left open to the independent companies. Who introduced new ideas and talents; Resurrecting the film industry, many of the innovators in the field of cinema were Jewish immigrants from Europe or their children who saw the nascent industry as an opportunity to make their mark in the new world, they left the busy streets of New York and headed west as they set up their projects under the sunny skies of Southern California, and while Europe was preoccupied with war. New Americans were busy creating Hollywood, which American journalist and critic Neil Gabler calls “an autonomous empire.” Gradually, between 1912 and 1928, the “major production studios” – Paramount, Golden Mayer Metro (MGM), Warner Brothers, Twentieth Century Fox and RKO – steadied themselves; It was followed by three smaller ones: Columbia Pictures, Universal and United Artists. Part of these companies’ success was due to the “studio system” which is an effective way to mass-produce movies similar to Henry Ford’s auto plant system. All the elements required for filmmaking were in the studio, there were groups of writers, carpenters, and website designers, as well as warehouses full of reusable costumes and tools, budgeting, montage and sound recording departments, and elaborate indoor and outdoor locations. This great degree of specialization and calibration was comparable to what happened in the assembly lines of cars at the Henry Ford factories; This has allowed studios to make films part by part.