Al-Riyadh Newspaper | 11 vaccines for Corona are in the final testing stage … the world is waiting for salvation

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11 vaccines for Corona are in the final testing stage … the world is waiting for salvation

The World Health Organization said that there are currently 48 vaccines against the “Covid-19” epidemic in the stage of clinical trials in humans.

The organization stated that only 11 of these vaccines entered the third and final stage before obtaining the approval of the authorities.

The following is a presentation of the most prominent vaccines nominated to reach the market first:

The two most promising vaccines are Pfizer and its partner Biontech, and the American company Moderna, and they appear to be the most advanced using advanced technology.

This technology is based on pumping particles of genetic instructions called “messenger RNA” into cells, to push them to manufacture proteins or “antagonists” directed against the Corona virus.

These proteins are sent to the immune system, which in turn produces vital antibodies.

Pfizer

The American giant and its German partner, Biontech, presented the results of the third phase of experiments, showing the effectiveness of their vaccines by 95% among the participants.

On Friday, they asked the US Food and Drug Administration to license their vaccine, the first manufacturers to submit a similar request in the United States and Europe.

Moderna

The US biotechnology company announced that its vaccine is 94.5% effective, and plans to manufacture 20 million doses of it by the end of the year.

Inactive vaccine technology

Many vaccines depend on this technology, and it requires treating the infectious agents from the Corona virus chemically or through heat, to make them less dangerous, but while maintaining their ability to produce an immune response. This is the most traditional form of pollination.

Sinovac

The Chinese company has launched the third phase trials of its “Corona Vacc” vaccine on thousands of volunteers, especially in Brazil.

Cinopharm, another Chinese laboratory, has launched two vaccine projects with Chinese research institutes.

China expects that by the end of the year it will be able to produce 610 million doses of several vaccines against Covid-19, and has previously given the green light for the emergency use of some of them.

Indian Bharat Beautique Company

In November, it launched a recruitment process for 26,000 people to undergo trials of its “Cofaxine” vaccine, which is being developed with the support of the Indian government, and it expects it to become available in the first quarter of 2021.

Viral vector vaccines

Vaccines with a “virus carrier” use another, less virulent virus, which is being transformed into a part of the virus responsible for “Covid-19”.

The modified virus is introduced into the cells of individuals, which in turn produce a protein typical of Corona, which will instruct their immune systems to recognize it.

AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford

Their vaccine uses an adenovirus as a vector. According to results published Monday, this vaccine is on average 70% effective, and even 90% in some cases.

AstraZeneca says it has made progress with scheduled manufacturing for 3 billion doses, which should become available in 2021.

Johnson & Johnson

The American company launched two clinical trials of its modified adenovirus vaccine, the first based on giving one dose to the participants, and the second two doses.

And around the world, this vaccine will receive 90,000 participants in total. The results are expected to be released in the first quarter of 2021.

Cansino Biological

The Chinese company Ad5NCove has developed, in cooperation with the military, a vaccine based on an adenovirus. Phase III trials were launched in Mexico, Russia and Pakistan.

Sputnik v

A vaccine developed by the Epidemiological Research Center “Gamalia”, together with the Russian Ministry of Defense, and based on the use of two viral vectors and adenoviruses.

And the Russians announced a few days ago that it was 92% effective. But the Jamalia institute is accused of violating standard protocols to speed up the scientific vaccine development process.

Several senior Russian officials announced that they had received the Sputnik V.

Recombinant Protein Vaccine

Novavax

The American company is developing a vaccine based on a recombinant protein, and the emerging corona virus has spots (which are viral proteins) on its surface that connect to the cells that infect the infection.

These proteins can be reproduced and reintroduced by the immune system to cause it to respond.

In September, Novavax launched the third phase of clinical trials in the United Kingdom, and in late November, it should launch trials in the United States.

The preliminary data is supposed to be released in the first semester of 2021.

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