Identification of rare inflammatory hyperstimulation syndrome in children infected with Coronavirus

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A number of researchers have mapped the immune response in children affected by a rare but life-threatening inflammatory syndrome linked to “Covid-19”, and the study, conducted by researchers from the Karolinska Institute, the Science for Life Laboratory in Sweden and the Tor Vergata University in Rome, Italy, which was published In the scientific journal Cell, the inflammatory response differs from that found in Kawasaki disease and acute “Covid-19”.

And in the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, with very few exceptions, children have shown mild symptoms. However, pediatricians have discovered a new, life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome similar to Kawasaki disease called multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children associated with “Covid-19” and multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C).

In a new collaborative study, researchers have delved into the immunological aspects of this rare condition. They compared blood samples from 13 patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) who were treated at Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden, and Bambino Gesu Children’s Hospital in Rome, Italy, with samples from 28 patients with Kawasaki disease collected from 2017 to 2018, before Covid. -19, The analyzes also included samples from children with mild cases of “Covid-19”.

“Our results show that the multisystem inflammatory syndrome is really an inflammatory condition distinct from Kawasaki disease, although there are some common features,” says Peter Brauden, a pediatrician and researcher in the Department of Women’s and Children’s Health at the Karolinska Institute, and lead author of the study. “Excessive inflammation and the cytokine storm detected in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome are also different from those seen in adult patients with severe acute COVID-19, which we have recently described in another publication.”

When comparing MSIS with these other inflammatory conditions, the study observed a variable frequency of groups of specific immune cells, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the blood. And unlike children with Kawasaki disease and children with mild “Covid-19”, children who developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome lacked immunoglobulin C (IgG) antibodies to the common cold coronavirus.

The researchers also found several autoantibodies that target proteins specific to the body that may contribute to the pathogenesis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome.

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They are also now looking at the genetic risk factors for developing polysystemic inflammatory syndrome after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

“There is an urgent need to better understand why a small minority of children infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop MSS,” says Dr. Brauden. He continued: “Better knowledge of pathogens is important for developing optimal treatments that can discourage a cytokine storm and hopefully saving lives, as well as for developing a vaccine to avoid the multisystem inflammatory syndrome caused by vaccination.”

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