What are the Emiratis, Chinese and Americans searching for on Mars?


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                In recent days, two spacecraft have been launched into orbit around Mars, called the Red Planet, to add to eight spacecraft that have long been in the orbit of the planet or roaming its surface.  Another spacecraft is expected to be launched at the end of this month.

                                    <p>One of the most interesting planets in the Solar System is Mars, also called the Red Planet.  In less than a week, two spacecraft left Earth for Mars.  The matter is related to the UAE spacecraft, Eswoir, which left on July 20, 2020, and the Chinese spacecraft, Tian Wen 1, which followed its predecessor less than three days later.  Another US spacecraft is scheduled to join them at the end of July.  Other than that, there are eight spacecraft in the orbit of Mars, which were launched by the United States, Europe and India.  The tasks of all of these vehicles are evident in the work to reveal the signs of past life and study the possibilities of a future human being on that planet. 

Who are the countries that are running this frantic race?

France Info channel confirms on its website that after the delay in launching a spacecraft in the direction of Mars due to bad weather conditions, the United Arab Emirates was able during this month to launch its spacecraft “Hope”, on a first space mission in the Arab world. The spacecraft was launched from the Tanegashima (Japan) Space Center. Its orbit around Mars is expected to start by February 2021, on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the unification of the seven emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates.

Once in space, the spacecraft will orbit it for a full year on Mars, which corresponds to 687 days on Earth. The spacecraft will attempt to provide a complete and unprecedented picture of the dynamics of time in the Martian atmosphere.

As for China, it sent, a few days ago, the spacecraft “Mangalian-1” (which means questions to the sky-1), from the launch center in Wenchang, southern China. It is expected that, before 2021, it will reach an unknown area of ​​the planet. This Chinese mission is independent and found ambitious, as China seeks to significantly reduce time and achieve almost everything the United States has accomplished in many missions of Mars since the 1960s, such as placing the spacecraft in orbit, sending a unit on Mars, and placing a controlled robot Remotely to conduct soil and atmosphere analyzes, take pictures and contribute to mapping the Red Planet .. The robot weighs more than 200 kilograms, and is equipped with four solar panels and six wheels. He will work for three months. If successful, this would be the first time in history that a non-American landing craft and unmanned robot were operating on Mars.

The USA plans to send a new device toward Mars at the end of July 2020, after its Curiosity launch in 2012. This “Spacecraft” spacecraft will be the largest, heaviest, and most advanced by NASA ever to the Red Planet. It will land on February 18, 2021 in the Jiziero crater, where a river flowed 3-4 billion years ago, which resulted in the deposition of sand and sediments in one of the best preserved deltas on Mars. And the length of the vehicle equipped with a drone, three meters, and weighs a ton, and equipped with 19 cameras, microphone and robot arm length of two meters.

The American vehicle is also available on American French equipment, SuperCam. It shoots laser on the surface of Mars, evaporates soil samples and analyzes the soil, and also shoots locations to understand the planet’s geology.

The UAE, China, and the United States launched spacecraft toward Mars, not by chance. The solar system provides once every 26 months the possibility of the sun, Earth and Mars in this exact arrangement, during which the distance between Earth and Mars is the shortest, providing fuel and the physical capabilities allocated to the mission.

Within the next two years, as part of the ExoMars mission, France and Russia are expected to launch the Exomars from Kazakhstan. The spacecraft will search for pieces of Mars, which will then carry them to Earth for analysis. It is a complex task.

What makes Mars so attractive?

Mars is the closest planet to Earth. But that is not enough to explain the great interest in this planet. As studies revealed that Mars and Earth were nearly identical, about five billion years ago.

3.5 billion years ago, Mars had an atmosphere and water, which would have led to the development of a form of life. So why did the two planets not evolve in the same way? This is one of the fundamental questions that scientists seek to answer, because the answer may be a key to developing future scenarios and plans for the possibilities of living on the planet.

The frenzied race to Mars is also about power and dominance. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union fought a ruthless race to the moon. Decades later, China occupied the place of the Soviet system, with the aim of investing in future resources and increasing its influence and political standing as well. Space exploration has become, in and of itself, an image of progress, a brand and a source of national pride.



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