Otitis media .. bacterial and viral infection


The middle ear is located behind the eardrum, which is an air-filled space or cavity connected to the nasopharynx, and it contains small vibrating bones, and most parts of the auditory system are vulnerable to infection and inflammation that targets children more than adults, especially infants between 6 and 15 months, resulting in Many complications and risks that affect the quality of hearing and speech and speech skill in children, and in this investigation we learn about the causes of injury and methods of prevention and treatment.
Dr. Bernard Hoffmann, consultant of ear, nose and throat surgery, says: Otitis media is a bacterial or viral infection that infects the air-filled cavity between the eardrum and the oval window, and appears as redness, swelling and accumulation of fluid behind the eardrum. This infection often occurs after illness or conditions Other health such as cold, flu or allergies. This condition targets all people, but it affects children more than adults, especially those between the ages of 6 and 15 months. When a baby reaches six months, it begins to lose protection from the antibodies it gets from the mother During pregnancy, as his immune system is still weak and has not developed sufficiently, and studies show that 25% of children suffer from inflammation of the middle ear for at least one time until they reach the age of ten.

Symptoms of inflammation

Dr. mentioned. Bernard is that the symptoms of a middle ear infection are slight and ephemeral in most cases; Where they disappear in a few days, and in cases of acute inflammation the signs of infection are pain in the ear, fever, feeling tired, lack of energy, a slight loss of hearing due to fluid accumulation; As the persistence of the condition leads to thick effusion such as glue, this is known as chronic otitis media with effusion, also called the gum ear, and results in poor hearing and delayed speech in children.
He adds: in some cases, the increased pressure resulting from the accumulation of fluid, especially acute, can lead to a hole in the eardrum as a result of a hole in the tympanic membrane, which is a skin-like tissue that separates the ear canal and middle ear, and as a result of this hole, the fluid comes out of the ear It is watery, bloody, or pus-colored, and the pain caused by fluid build-up in the eardrum will suddenly go away.

Causes of injury

Dr. Ahmed Fikry, ENT specialist, states that children aged 6 months to 2 years are most affected by middle ear infections due to the shape and size of Eustachian ducts and their weak immune system, and that those who receive care in group environments are exposed to colds, colds and infections. The ear, as well as babies who drink milk from the bottle while lying down or sleeping.
And he adds: seasonal factors play an important role in infection. As ear infections are more common between fall and winter with the spread of colds and flu, they are therefore targeted for people with seasonal allergies. Exposure to tobacco smoke or high levels of air pollution increases the risk of middle ear infections.

Remedial measures

Dr. Ahmed warns that repeated injury and persistent fluid accumulation can lead to some serious complications, such as hearing impairment, delayed speech or development skills in children, the spread of untreated inflammation to nearby tissues such as cerebral meningitis, brain abscess, and symmetrical protruding inflammation, ear infections Fecal recurrent, perforation of the tympanic membrane, and in case the inflammation is minor or viral, it is advised to monitor the child and use pain relievers and consult a doctor continuously until the inflammation has gone away, but if it is repeated and worsens with time, and the symptoms are severe, the injured needs treatment as follows:
Antibiotics are used when the cause of infection is bacterial, by mouth or as an injection daily, without interruption before the completion of the treatment period even if an improvement in the condition appears, in addition to nasal decongestant sprays, to help to ventilate the ear by removing congestion and blockage of the ostakius canal.
If the infection is caused by an allergy, a cortisone or antihistamine nasal spray may help relieve symptoms, and thus reduce the risk of otitis media.
– As for cases that do not respond to drug therapy, the doctor may have to perform a surgical hole in the eardrum to allow combined pus exudate from the ear.

Means and means

Dr. Ahmed recommends some advice to avoid middle ear infection, by preventing and treating colds so that they do not develop, and to follow up on young people, especially those who have been attacked by inflammation four or more times a year and to see a doctor, to ensure that they are given routine vaccinations on time, and to ensure that they are not The child was exposed to cigarette smoke and hookah (second-hand smoke), and kept away from people with a cold, and the mother has to raise the baby’s head slightly while feeding.

Ear blockage

Dr. Ahmed Shabana, Otolaryngologist, explains that ear obstruction is a feeling of an obstruction in the ear that prevents the sounds from coming in normally, and there are many factors that cause this, such as the collection of wax in the external auditory canal, otitis media, or the presence of an object Strange in the hearing channel, which leads to blockage, or the collection of fluids for any pathological reason, or exposure to bruises on the head, which causes the collection of blood secretions inside the middle or external ear, and symptoms of blockage appear as tinnitus, lack of hearing, loss of balance and dizziness sometimes, the presence In-ear fluid.

Multiple complications

Dr. Ahmed shows that there are multiple complications that occur as a result of blockage of the ear, including lack of hearing at all ages, especially for young people, and it results in delayed speech, recurrent middle ear inflammation, frequent feeling of dizziness and lightheadedness, tinnitus, and therefore the causes that do not need anesthesia such as : Cerumen or wax, foreign bodies in the apparent hearing stream, but if the problem collects fluids in the middle ear with or without lesions in the nose or nasopharynx, the physician may have to remove them surgically when medication fails, and also in the case of apparent narrowing of the hearing stream Chronic, by manufacturing the hearing stream.

Causes of tinnitus

Dr. Ahmed notes that tinnitus is one of the lesions that accompanies the problems of the middle ear, and it targets some people more than others, such as those who are exposed to loud voices for varying periods, without protecting their ears, and those who have a family story for lack of hearing, and who suffer from health problems in the nose or Pharynx and prevent the natural ventilation of the ears through the nose, causing fluid accumulation in the middle ear and thus the tinnitus occurs, in addition to a problem in the temporomandibular joint that is located in front of the ear, vascular diseases that affect the vessels passing around the middle and inner ear, causing buzzing, and the use of some Medicines, and some ear drops cause tinnitus.

Diagnostic methods

Dr. Ahmed states that the diagnosis of tinnitus is performed with an endoscopic examination of the ear or electron microscope; Where the attending physician plans auditory impedance to deny the presence of any change in pressure in the middle ear, in addition to planning the hearing in pure tones; As the tinnitus may be a reaction due to the weakness of the hearing system in the inner ear which is called the auditory cochlea, and in some cases, it is necessary to plan the brainstem in children of certain ages, and examine an investigative ear under general anesthesia, as well as conduct radiological images.


Inflammation of the middle ear causes many complications that affect the patient, the most prominent of which is an imbalance, where a person is exposed to an imbalance in the body when the infection spreads to a delicate structure inside the ear, and symptoms of infection appear when feeling unsteady while walking or standing, dizziness, general weakness , Which leads to his inability to perform the usual daily activities, and the diagnosis is made by doing x-rays, audiometry tests, tuning forks, and a “postorographic” balance check. Medications are used to reduce the exacerbation of symptoms and surgical intervention can be done in some cases that do not respond to treatment.


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