Researchers in Australia found the oldest crater a meteorite had caused when it fell to the ground, the Yarupuba hole, which is about 70 km in diameter, but it has completely eroded today.
The researchers confirmed that this hole was caused by a hitting of one of the heavenly bodies with what is known today in the state of Western Australia, more than 2.2 billion years ago, according to researchers under the supervision of Timmons Erickson from the NASA Johnson Center for Space Research, in the American city of Houston, in their study published in The current issue of the “Nature Communications” magazine.
Celestial bodies were falling on the Earth continuously at the beginning of Earth’s life, but the movements of the Earth’s lithosphere (tectonic plates) and the erosion of these plates over billions of years caused these craters to completely disappear.
The researchers involved have so far classified the structures of the Friedvoifert crater in northern southern Africa and the Sudbury Basin in the Canadian province of Ontario, which is just under the age of the Verdfort structure, as the oldest geological structures resulting from the impact of heavenly bodies on Earth, both 200 kilometers in diameter.
There is no crater indicating a collision that resulted in the Yarubaoba crater, but there is an unusual magnetic phenomenon in an elliptical field (ellipse) drop 11 to 20 kilometers away.
In determining the impact time, the researchers relied on the isotope analyzes of zircon and monazite metal, and determined the hole’s lifespan at 2,229 billion years, equivalent to about half of the Earth’s current life.
There were already, in the Triassic period, multicellular organisms, the researchers suggest.
Thus, the crater age is about 200 million years older than that of the Friedvoort crater, which was considered by scientists to date to be the oldest and largest crater on Earth.
Researchers believe that the impact that occurred in Australia affected the Earth’s climate, where large parts of the land were covered at that time and with great depth, in ice, where there are effects on glaciers deposits estimated at least 2.225 billion years old, in the Territory of Trafsal, North South Africa.
Then the ice receded later and for an estimated period of at least 400 million years, researchers said, who linked this to the impact.
The researchers say that many factors caused by the Yarubaoba crater could have altered the regional or cosmic climate, as the hole could have ejected massive amounts of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other greenhouse gases into the Earth’s atmosphere, which was still Back then poor in oxygen.