The scientists at the University of Cardiff, Wales, said that the new T cells give hope for a “one-size-fits-all” treatment for cancer, according to (Russia Today) quoted by the Mirror newspaper.
Anti-cancer T-cell treatments, which include removing, modifying, and returning immune cells to the blood of a patient to find and destroy cancer cells, are the latest model in advanced cancer treatments. The most widely used type is known as CAR-T, which is specific to each patient, but targets a number Limited cancer, and did not manage to treat solid tumors, which constitute the majority of cancers. Scientists have now discovered T cells equipped with a new type of T cell receptor (TCR), which recognizes and kills most human cancer, while ignoring healthy cells.
The new type identifies a molecule that is present on the surface of a wide range of cancerous cells and normal cells, and is able to distinguish between healthy and cancerous cells, as it only kills the last. It is quite usual to “find TCR with this type of cancer on a large scale, which raised the possibility of” comprehensive “treatment for cancer. We hope the new TCR will provide us with a different approach to targeting and destroying a wide range of cancers in all individuals. “
Conventional T cells scan the surface of other cells, to find anomalies and eliminate cancerous cells, while ignoring cells that contain only “normal” proteins.
The scan identifies small portions of the cellular proteins associated with cell surface molecules, called human leukocyte antigen (HLA), allowing lethal T cells to see what is happening inside the cells by scanning their surface.
But the study, published in Nature Immunology, describes TCR as unique and can recognize many types of cancer via a single HLA molecule called MR1. Unlike HLA, MR1 does not differ between people, i.e. it is a very attractive new target for treatments. Immunostaining.
In the laboratory, it was found that T cells equipped with the new TCR, kill lung tumors, skin, blood, colon, breast, bone, prostate, ovary, kidney, and cervix, malignancy while ignoring healthy cells. To test the therapeutic potential of these cells in vivo, scientists injected T cells that were able to recognize MR1 in mice equipped with human tumors and a human immune system.
The research team says this has stimulated cancer elimination, in a manner similar to that of the British National Health Administration (NHS) now, in a similar animal model. Scientists have also been able to demonstrate that T cells in melanoma patients modified to express the new TCR It can destroy not only the patient’s cancer cells, but also the cancer cells of other patients in the laboratory, regardless of the patient’s HLA type. Now, scientists are conducting an experiment to determine the exact molecular mechanism that distinguishes the new TCR between healthy cells and cancer. They hope to try the new approach among patients at the end of the year. Source: Dunia Al-Watan